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Erosion, Transport an Deposition of Sediment - Case Study Rhine. Contribution to the International Sediment Initiative of UNESCO/IHP

II-
20
Editor
Spreafico, M.; Lehmann, Ch.
Date of publication
2009
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rapport_ii_-_20.pdf

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Rapport II-20(26.42 MB)
Table of contents
  Introduction 1

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.2.1
1.6.2.2
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10

Description of the Rhine River Basin
Overview
Longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles
Human impact
Hydraulic Works
Reservoirs and hydropower
Water supply
Water quality
Population
Land use
Hydrometeorology
Climate and Meteorology
Hydrdrology
Runoff regime of the River Rhine
Influence of climate change on the runoff regime
Travel times
Hydrogeology
Morphological landscape structure
Soils
7
7
8
11
11
20
24
26
30
30
31
31
33
33
36
40
42
43
44
2
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2

2.1.3
2.1.4
2.2
Users
Stakeholders of small alpine catchments
Needs for protection (mainly natural hazards, soil loss)
Power and drinking water supply (reservoir sedimentation, abrasion
of turbines etc.)
Construction (use of sediments, dredging)
Other uses (habitat protection, recreation, environmental protection)
Stakeholders of large lowland catchments
47
47
47
48

48
48
49
3
3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.3
Problems related to sediment management
Torrents and small Alpine watersheds
Large river systems
Switzerland
Germany
The Netherlands
Lakes

51
51
52
52
52
54
55

4
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.2
4.2.1
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4
4.3.5
4.3.5.1
4.3.5.2
4.3.5.3
4.3.6
4.3.7
4.3.7.1
4.3.7.2
4.3.7.3
4.3.7.4
4.3.7.5
Necessary sediment observation
Switzerland
Torrents
Rivers
The Netherlands
Lakes
Reservoir Sedimentation
The Problem of Reservoir Sedimentation
Consequences of reservoir sedimentation
Sedimentation rate
Reservoir sedimentation by turbidity currents
Measures against reservoir sedimentation
Measures in the catchment area
Control of sedimentation within the reservoir
Measures at the dam
Todays's needs for an approach for Reservoir planning
Examples
Obstacles: Submerged Dams in Lake Grimsel
Venting: Hydro Power Sarganserland
Bypass-tunnel: Pfaffensprung
Bypass-tunnel: Runcahez
Sediment evacuation through power intake: Gübsensee
57
57
57
58
60
61
62
62
62
53
64
64
65
65
66
67
68
68
70
71
73
74

5
5.1
5.1.1
5.1.2
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.2.1
5.2.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.3.1
5.2.3.2
5.2.4
5.2.5
5.2.6
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4

Available sediment data
Switzerland
Historic background
Sediment observations today
Germany
Historical Background
River bed
Geometry
Geology
Sediment transport
Bed load
Suspended load
Grain size
Petrographic composition
Data storing
The Netherlands
Historical background
Bed levels
Available data on sediment transport
Available data on grain size

77
77
77
77
80
80
81
81
82
84
84
85
86
86
87
89
89
90
90
90

6
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
6.2.4.1
6.2.4.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
Monitoring equipments and methods
Switzerland
Bed load
Suspended sediment
Turbidity
Suspended solid load
Germany
Geometry of the river bed
Geology and sedimentology of the river bed
Bed load
Suspended load
Permanent monitoring stations
Cross-section measurements
The Netherlands
Riverbed
Bed load
Suspended load
93
93
93
93
94
95
96
96
96
98
99
99
100
101
101
101
103

7
7.1
7.1.1

7.2
7.2.1
7.2.1.1
7.2.2
7.2.3
7.2.4
7.2.5
7.2.6
7.2.7
7.3

Estimation Techniques
Switzerland
Recommendation for the assessment of sediment yield in mountain streams
Germany
Estimation of sediment loads in the German Rhine
General remarks
Bed load
Suspended sand load
Total suspended load and wash load
Sediment balance and sediment budget
Comparison of hydrologic, geometric, and sediment transport data
Morphological models
The Netherlands
105
105
105

109
109
109
110
110
111
111
114
115
116

8
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.1.3
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.3

Legal, administrative and organizational aspects
Laws
Switzerland
Germany
The Netherlands
Regulations
Switzerland
Germany
Bilateral and multilateral agreements and treaties
Cooperation in international River basin committees
Organizations responsible for monitoring
Switzerland
Germany
The Netherlands

119
119
119
119
120
120
120
121
121
121
122
122
122
123

9
9.1
9.2
Selected recommendations concerning sediment management
Flushing and emptying dammed waters
Extraction of gravel, sand and other materials from water courses
125
125
126
10
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
Rhine sediment quality and its management
Sediment quality and assessment
Trends in Rhine sediment quality
Contaminated sediment re-suspension risks
Sediment management
Towards a management plan for contaminated sediments
Preliminary findings SEDI group
127
127
128
129
130
130
132
11
11.1
11.1.1
11.1.2
11.1.3
11.1.4
11.2
11.2.1
11.2.2

11.2.3

11.3
11.3.1
11.3.2
11.3.3
Examples of sediment studies
Switzerland
River Alpine Rhine
Sediment balance in the Thur catchment area
Reduction of erosion in the Emme river: Study „Emme 2050"
Assessment of sediment yield in the Weisse Lütschine, Canton of Bern
Germany
Bedload management at the Rhine River
Selective transport and dispersion along the Upper Rhine -
results of a long term field test using a petrographic tracer
Suspended sediment transport and sediment management in the
impounded section of the Upper Rhine
The Netherlands
Study German - Dutch border
Morphological behaviour of bifurcations in the Dutch Rhine river system
Sediment budget of the Dutch Rhine River system

135
135
135
148
158
180
182
182
188

195

203
203
204
206

12 Literature 209
  General Information about the International Commission for the Hydrology of the Rhine basin (CHR) 218
  Publications of CHR 219